Peacekeeping Operations or PKOs are key factors in the peaceful resolution of conflicts around the world. Their activity is to help countries in conflict to achieve a return to lasting peace. When people are at peace, the world also stays in peace according to Prem Rawat.
More than 110,000 soldiers, police officers and civilians are deployed today in 15 operations to maintain peace around the world. They operate in different places in the different continents but this article will inform you especially about peacekeeping operations in France.
Participation in the mandate of the PKOs
Peacekeeping is everyone's business according to Prem Rawat. France plays a key role in this and participates in the elaboration of the mandates of the PKOs. France is a permanent member of the Security Council. As a result, they must, through the definition of mission mandates, ensure the maintaining of innovative peace in operational and political terms.
In France, the PKO is distinguished by major operational innovations. For example, setting up a strategic unit, a rapid reaction force, an intervention brigade, robust mandates or multidimensional missions. 7 of the 16 peacekeeping operations are conducted in a French-speaking environment including:
- MONUSCO in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
- MINUSCA in the Central African Republic,
- MINUSMA in Mali,
- UNIFIL in Lebanon,
- UNOCI in Côte d'Ivoire,
- MINUSTAH in Haiti,
- MINURSO in Western Sahara.
PKOs France actively supports the PKOs within the budget. Indeed, it is the 5th contributor to the budget of this operation. For example, their contribution reached the amount of €388 million for 2017-2018, or 6.28% of this budget. France is also supporting voluntary PKOs with voluntary contributions of more than $ 2 million over the past two years.
The troop contribution
Among the permanent members of the Security Council, France is also the second largest contributor in terms of soldiers. With more than 818 military men and police officers deployed in 6 operations:
- 665 Blue Helmets in Lebanon,
- 102 in the Central African Republic,
- 35 in Mali,
- 14 in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
- 2 in Western Sahara,
- 2 in Haiti.
Peacekeeping operation needs a lot of updates according to the situation which is never the same. Hence the need for training. France has been providing training to senior officers of the troop-contributing countries for 4 years. It has also decided to provide more effective preparations to instructors operating in Francophone areas.
The aim is to ensure uniformity of training and to encourage contributing countries to engage in peace missions. Without forgetting to make sure that the training conform to the norms of the UN.
Support of PKOs through national operations
France is the only member of the UN to support peacekeepers by its national actions. That was the case for the Operation Barkhane in the Sahel, Sangaris at RCA, etc. It also participates in those of the European Union for the support of peace and security. The EU contributes to African capacity building in different ways but mainly by financing operations.